Notes

  1. Greg Kretovic, “Frigid Sunrise at the Ore Dock,” Digital Image, Michigan Nature Photos, Accessed April 8, 2015. http://michigannaturephotos.photoshelter.com/gallery-image/Presque-Isle-Park/G0000DYt4x1RZHxQ/I0000SLdoUIWuu2E/C0000vdC75wwLznE
  2.  “Soo Locks Michigan,” Digital image, Cities Gallery, Accessed April 15, 2015. http://www.citiesgallery.com/soo-locks/
  3.  “Fayette Blast Furnace,” Digital image, Blog, Accessed April 10, 2015. http://bobandjotravelblog.blogspot.com/2011/08/fayette-historic-townsite.html
  4.  Florida Center for Instructional Technology, “United States During the Civil War, 1861-1865,” Digital image, Accessed April 19, 2015. http://etc.usf.edu/maps/pages/7700/7726/7726.htm
  5. “Fort Sumter 150 Years Ago,” Digital image, The Citadel, Accessed April 20, 2015. http://www.citadel.edu/citadel-history/fort-sumter-150-years.html
  6. “Appomattox Court House,” Digital image, Encyclopedia Britannica, April 9, 1865, Accessed April 20, 2015. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/30727/Appomattox-Court-House
  7. Johanna Boyle, “The Upper Peninsula in the CIVIL WAR,” The Mining Journal, June 28, 2011, Online, Accessed April 12, 2015. http://www.miningjournal.net/page/content.detail/id/564063/The-Upper-Peninsula-in-the-CIVIL-WAR.html?nav=5006
  8. Ibid.
  9. Ibid.
  10. David Johnson, “Michigan Iron Mines,” Mining Artifacts, Accessed April 2, 2015. http://www.miningartifacts.org/Michigan-Iron-Mines.html
  11. Ibid.
  12. Francis Amasa Walker, and United States. Census Office. 9th census,1870. 1872. The statistics of the wealth and industry of the united states: Embracing the tables of wealth, taxation, and public indebtedness of agriculture, manufactures, mining and the fisheries : With which are reproduced, from the volume on population the major tables of occupations, compiled from the original returns of the ninth census, june 1, 1870. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1872.
  13. David Johnson, “Michigan Iron Mines”.
  14. United States. Census Office. 8th census. 1865. Manufactures of the united states in 1860: Compiled from the original returns of the eighth census. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1865, 267.
  15. Ibid., clxxx.
  16. Michigan. Dept. of State. 1865. Census and statistics of the state of michigan. 1864. Lansing: John A. Kerr & Co., 1865, XXI-XXII .
  17. Ibid., LI.
  18. Ibid., LII.
  19. Francis Amasa Walker, and United States. Census Office. 9th census,1870. 1872. The statistics of the wealth and industry of the united states: Embracing the tables of wealth, taxation, and public indebtedness of agriculture, manufactures, mining and the fisheries : With which are reproduced, from the volume on population the major tables of occupations, compiled from the original returns of the ninth census, june 1, 1870. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1872, 560.
  20. Michigan. Department of State. 1875. Census of the state of michigan, 1874. Lansing: W. S. George & Co. 1875, 386.
  21. United States. 1883. Report on the manufactures of the United States at the tenth census (June 1, 1880): embracing general statistics and monographs on power used in manufactures, the factory system, interchangeable mechanism, hardware, cutlery, etc., iron and steel, silk manufacture, cotton manufacture, woolen manufacture, chemical products and salt, glass manufacture. Washington, D.C.: G.P.O.
  22. Ibid.
  23. United States. 1924. Fourteenth census of the United States. State compendium. Michigan. Statistics of population, occupations, agriculture, drainage, manufactures, and mines and quarries for the state, counties, and cities. Washington: Govt. Print. Off.
  24. Ibid., 138.
  25. Ibid., 138.
  26. Ibid., 332.
  27. David Johnson, “Michigan Iron Mines,” Mining Artifacts, Accessed April 2, 2015. http://www.miningartifacts.org/Michigan-Iron-Mines.html
  28. Ibid.
  29. Ibid.
  30. Willis Frederick Dunbar, 1965. Michigan: A history of the wolverine state. Grand Rapids: W. B. Eerdmans Pub. CoDavid
  31. Johnson, “Michigan Iron Mines,” Mining Artifacts, Accessed April 2, 2015. http://www.miningartifacts.org/Michigan-Iron-Mines.html
  32. Ibid.
  33. Michigan. Dept. of State. 1865. Census and statistics of the state of michigan. 1864. Lansing: John A. Kerr & Co.
  34. Willis Frederick Dunbar, 1965. Michigan: A history of the wolverine state. Grand Rapids: W. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co
  35. David Johnson, “Michigan Iron Mines,” Mining Artifacts, Accessed April 2, 2015. http://www.miningartifacts.org/Michigan-Iron-Mines.html
  36. Ibid.
  37. “William Austin Burt,” Digital Image, Wikipedia, Before 1873, Accessed April 21, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Austin_Burt
  38. “Burt’s Solar Compass.” Digital Image. Wikipedia. November 4, 2010. Accessed April 21, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Austin_Burt
  39. United States. Census Office. 8th census. 1865. Manufactures of the united states in 1860: Compiled from the original returns of the eighth census. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1865.
  40. Francis Amasa Walker, and United States. Census Office. 9th census,1870. 1872. The statistics of the wealth and industry of the united states: Embracing the tables of wealth, taxation, and public indebtedness of agriculture, manufactures, mining and the fisheries : With which are reproduced, from the volume on population the major tables of occupations, compiled from the original returns of the ninth census, june 1, 1870. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1872.
  41. Michigan. Department of State. 1875. Census of the state of michigan, 1874. Lansing: W. S. George & Co. 1875, 386.
  42. United States. 1883. Report on the manufactures of the United States at the tenth census (June 1, 1880): embracing general statistics and monographs on power used in manufactures, the factory system, interchangeable mechanism, hardware, cutlery, etc., iron and steel, silk manufacture, cotton manufacture, woolen manufacture, chemical products and salt, glass manufacture. Washington, D.C.: G.P.O.
  43. Randall Schaetzl, “Iron Mining: Where and Why?,” Online. Accessed April 13, 2015. http://geo.msu.edu/extra/geogmich/iron.html
  44. Lyndsay Davis, “Menominee Iron Range,” Online, Accessed April 21, 2015. http://geo.msu.edu/extra/geogmich/menominee-iron-range.html
  45. David Johnson, “Michigan Iron Mines,” Mining Artifacts, Accessed April 2, 2015. http://www.miningartifacts.org/Michigan-Iron-Mines.html
  46. Ibid.
  47. Ibid.
  48. Michigan. Dept. of State. 1865. Census and statistics of the state of michigan. 1864. Lansing: John A. Kerr & Co., 1865.
  49. United States. 1883. Report on the manufactures of the United States at the tenth census (June 1, 1880): embracing general statistics and monographs on power used in manufactures, the factory system, interchangeable mechanism, hardware, cutlery, etc., iron and steel, silk manufacture, cotton manufacture, woolen manufacture, chemical products and salt, glass manufacture. Washington, D.C.: G.P.O.
  50. David Johnson, “Michigan Iron Mines,” Mining Artifacts, Accessed April 2, 2015. http://www.miningartifacts.org/Michigan-Iron-Mines.html
  51. Lyndsay Davis, “Menominee Iron Range,” Online, Accessed April 21, 2015. http://geo.msu.edu/extra/geogmich/menominee-iron-range.html
  52. Randall Schaetzl, “Iron Mining: Where and Why?,” Online. Accessed April 13, 2015. http://geo.msu.edu/extra/geogmich/iron.html
  53. Ibid.
  54. Lyndsay Davis, “Menominee Iron Range,” Online, Accessed April 21, 2015. http://geo.msu.edu/extra/geogmich/menominee-iron-range.html
  55. David Johnson, “Michigan Iron Mines,” Mining Artifacts, Accessed April 2, 2015. http://www.miningartifacts.org/Michigan-Iron-Mines.html
  56. Randall Schaetzl, “Iron Mining: Where and Why?,” Online. Accessed April 13, 2015. http://geo.msu.edu/extra/geogmich/iron.html
  57. David Johnson, “Michigan Iron Mines,” Mining Artifacts, Accessed April 2, 2015. http://www.miningartifacts.org/Michigan-Iron-Mines.html
  58. Ibid.
  59. Ibid.
  60. Ibid.
  61. Ibid.
  62. Ibid.